Shugborough Transformed

Doctor Sneyd Davies (Rector of Kingsland, Herefordshire and resident as a Canon at Lichfield in the 1750s) visited Shugborough in 1750 and wrote his impressions:

"Mr. Anson's—a beautiful house and river; grounds well disposed; Chinese buildings and bridges; a church-like pigeon-house; excellent modern ruins. — He has erected a pile of broken arches, and of imperfect pillars, to counterfeit the remains of antiquity.—The architect could not perform his part satisfactorily without finishing the whole. Then comes Mr. Anson with axes and chissels to demolish as much of it as taste and judgment claimed; and this without affectation, for he is very disciplined, grave, and sensible.

"Of all that I have yet seen, and I have seen almost every thing, Mr. Anson's place captivates the most. It has the happiest and the most graceful union of Grecian taste and of Oriental magnificence, particularly one room.—I find it thus delineated upon my tablets." (1)

(This implies Sneyd Davies had included a drawing with his letter. Was it of the library?)

"As we meet him frequently upon visits at other houses, I look upon his peep at Kingsland as a lucky circumstance, from the marked notice which he takes of me"

The same Dr Sneyd Davies wrote an elegy for Admiral Anson (after 1762) which alludes to the Shepherds Monument - "Reason's finger pointing to the tomb."

What kind of country seat was the remodelled Shugborough? One suited for the entertainment of important people and political neighbours, perhaps - but they would tend to be neighbours rather than passing celebrities. Staffordshire was two or three days journey from London. Far more probable is that Shugborough was to be place of retirement, a place to pursue his artistic interests, and, at the same time, a suitable place for brother his sister-in-law to visit (though the letters that survive suggest that Lady Anson always visited alone when her husband was occupied with naval business or war. It always has to be remembered, too, it was a place for his unmarried sisters to live.

A later visitor, John Parnell wrote:

"I must hasten to describe a Place I never heard of before last night and yet in my opinion Deserves to be accounted one of the finest improvements in England. I mean Mr Ansons."(2)

Even in 1769 when the house had been further extended by Stuart it was far from grandiose:

"...a convenient moderate siz'd Brick mansion to which...he added two wings and raised the center a story and Plaisterd ot stuccoed the whole to give it the air of a uniform stone Building."

In fact the alterations to the house in 1747/8 were modest - a new drawing room for social events (now the dining room), with a bedroom attached, no doubt for the grand visitors, and a wonderfully comfortable and cosy gentleman's library and sitting room.

"The house has some Rooms vastly neatly fitted up tho not Large the Library side of the House very Elegant, the cornices are particularly neat a la grec and the ceiling finished in a very pretty taste."

Lady Grey and her husband Philip Yorke were the first visitors to leave any comments on the changes. She wrote that:

"the house had some fine rooms lately added to it, and one exceedingly odd and pretty that is the Library."(3)

Parnell describes the gardens dotted with antique statues and herms and sums up the impression of the house:

"...this mixture of fine Peces of antiquity with the garden makes it look like an old Roman Villa as I conceive did not the Rich meads on the other side of the River coverd with cattle bring back the English farm to mind."(4)

This is surely exactly the effect that was intended.

Thomas Anson emerges an adventurous traveller, a man of quiet humility and discretion. He may have been a man of secrets - at least legal confidences. He was interested in new ideas until the end of his life, in the arts and sciences, and yet he stood a little to the side, listening but saying little - or not being noticed in the journals and letters of his acquaintances.

If it may be assumed for the moment that Wright was the architect and landscape designer involved it becomes possible to imagine the world of ideas that inspired the place. It is not a building or garden project which exists purely as a visual spectacle, it is an expression of the ideas and imagination of its creators.

In the cases both of Thomas Anson, whose overall vision it must have been, and Wright, who would have been a leading figure in a "committee of taste" (as Laura Mayer has called it) their imaginative world is unusual, unconventional and unexpected. A close look at the work that was planned in that period reveals something of the concept behind it, making Shugborough a world in miniature.

It was a complicated project. A number of different artists and craftsmen must have worked together, particularly on the extensions to the house. It is hard to imagine Thomas Wright passing through and making a few sketches. The Library and Drawing Room would involve careful structural planning. The Library, eccentrically and attractively, is half within the old house and half in the link between the old house and the extension. It's a very clever use of space. The extensions also created the absolute minimum of disruption for the house guests and the sisters who lived there.

The plaster decoration of the Drawing Room has, we assume, details that are purely Thomas Wright's design - those that Eileen Harris found in his drawings for Nuthall Temple, six or eight years later. It may have features that are purely the work of the plasterer, Francesco Vassalli. Philip Yorke mentioned in his journal in 1763 that Vasalli lived "in the neighbourhood" and he worked in many West Midlands houses including Hagley Hall for Lord Lyttleton. Vassalli later worked with James Stuart and the accounts clearly charged separately for parts that were Stuart's design and parts that were his.

In the library there are paintings designed to fit the space by Nicholas Dall. There would be the commissioning and management of builders and craftsmen. Over all of it would be the guiding imagination of Thomas Anson, who would have to explain and discuss his ideas with his team.

There is no doubt that the scheme was personally supervised by Thomas Anson. It is very individual and has unique features of significance to himself. Where else in an English country house will you plaster images of Isis and Serapis, reflecting his Thomas's Egyptian journey?

The ceiling of the Drawing Room (now the Dining Room) is decorated with a plaster copy of Guido Reni's Apollo and the Hours. There are four roundels. Two of them are representations of Isis (with her sistrum, which was the symbol of the Egyptian Society) and Serapis (with a corn measure on his head), alluding to Thomas's Egyptian trip. The iconography of the later period Isis and Serapis rather than the ancient Egyptian Isis and Osiris is possibly derived from Plutarch. The third shows a Maenad, one of the wild followers of Dionysus with vines in her hair. The fourth, above the window, shows Confucius, bringing into the house the Chinese theme in honour of George Anson's travels. It's hard to see how earlier writers have seen this as Dionysus. It is very obviously a Chinese figure - but, then, it is odd that the maenad appears without Dionysus.

The garden features would have similar complications, with planting and even reconstruction of waterways as part of the plan as well as bricks and mortar.

This is no quick weekend job, but a gradual process of planning and development. The conclusion has to be that Thomas Wright was a house guest for a fairly lengthy period, either in the latter part of 1747 or in the winter and spring. There would be all manner of surveying activities, consultations with collaborators, and, as well as that, time to work on his "Original Theory" and discuss his "hypothesis amazingly grand."

THE CHINESE ISLAND

The Chinese House is still the centre piece of Shugborough's most photographed view, even though the course of the river has changed and the original bridges have been replaced by a nineteenth century iron one. The simplicity and lack of unnecessary detail of the Chinese House give it a pure and timeless quality. This is due to its origins in drawings made in China by Captain Piercy Brett. It has an authenticity quite unlike other 18th century pastiches of Chinese style.

Thomas Pennant is the only source for Piercy Brett's involvement.

"The Chinese house, a little farther on, is a true pattern of the architecture of that nation, taken in the country by the skilful pencil of Sir Percy Brett: not a mongrel invention of British carpenters." (5)

Sir Piercy Brett (1709-1781) sailed on Admiral Anson's circumnavigation, becoming Second Lieutenant on Anson's ship "The Centurion". His drawings became the basis of the illustrations in the best selling account the epic journey published in 1744. There is no reason to believe that Chinese House was built separately from the rest of the landscaping in spite of the often repeated idea that it was built first of all the garden buildings, in 1747. This is actually unlikely if not actually impossible as the elegant Chinese House is part of a Chinese Island. The small island sits in the ancient moat, two sides of which became part of the landscaping. The original shape of the moat is hard to imagine now, but on 18th century illustrations it appears to have become an ornamental lake in front of the house, possibly very liable to flooding. The island is unlikely to have been a feature of the original moat and it has to be assumed that reconstruction of the existing water into an ornamental canal was part of Thomas Wright's overall scheme. He is thought to have made similar alterations of older formal canals at Wrest shortly after his supposed work at Shugborough.

Probably at a later stage he Chinese House was used to display Admiral Anson's Chinese Porcelain and Mirrors. The porcelain service cannot have been brought back from China on the great voyage as it has a pattern based on Shugborough themes, the costume of shepherds and shepherdesses, and their crooks and bagpipes, and very English ruins suggesting the Shugborough landscape. These must have been painted from designs sent to China from England . If the service belonged to the Admiral it is likely to have been at Moor Park, his country seat from 1752 to his death in 1762 before it came to Shugborough. The interior of the Chinese House had a colourful decoration in red, green, blue and gold and a chinoiserie ceiling which has been moved into the house.

The Ansons would not have been able to have an ornamental island in their grounds without thinking of the island of Tinian which Lord Anson visited on his circumnavigation.

Tinian was uninhabited at the time, and "Anson's Voyage" described it as a green and lush place, stocked with fruit and vegetables and, surprisingly, a large number of small cattle which may have been left by Spanish settlers.

The cattle of Tinian certainly had a place in Lady Anson's mind. She wrote to Thomas on December 29th 1749 . As she wrote in this letter "it is the fashion to go out of Town for the Holydays."

"Next to my Enquiries after My Friends at Shugborough, I desire to ask after Their Friends the Cows, whose Sickness I hope does not damp the mirth of Christmas amusements. - I hope they are ell, and likely to remain so, I desire to recommend a Companion to them, who is, I am told, and indeed am much inclined to believe, from the acquaintance I have had with her Family, very worthy of that honor, both as to Beauty & Merit. She is about six months old and according to the description I have had of her will very well deserve to be called Tinian, being White, with coloured Nose & Ears…..So much for Moggy who waits your command." (6)

A few months earlier she had asked if

"…the Mrs Ansons know of any clever dairy maid fit to attend upon the Alderney Cows which are to come to Carshalton I should be much obliged to them for Intelligence of her." (7)

Cows, especially picturesque cows, were part of the landscape, not just for practical purposes. In his 1763 notes Philip Yorke referred to the view of a "ferme ornee", implying that the farm opposite the house had also become part of the overall scene.

The description of the island of Tinian had a curiously roundabout influence on garden design. The hero of Jean Jacques Rousseau's novel "Julie ou la nouvelle Heloise" (1761) sails with Anson, and on his return finds that the heroine has created an idyllic, English style, garden which reminds him of the wild paradises he had seen with Anson, Tinian and Juan Fernandez.

"I was looking at the wildest, loneliest spot in the whole of Nature, and I seemed to be the first mortal who had ever penetrated within this wilderness." (8)

This Rousseau garden, of deliberate natural simplicity, then became a model for real English gardens. Viscount Nuneham, the son of Thomas Anson's Dilettante Society friend (and fellow patron of James "Athenian" Stuart) Lord Harcourt, designed just such a garden at Nuneham Courtney with William Mason, author of an epic poem on "The English Garden." Viscount Nuneham was a keen supporter of Jean Jacques Rousseau.

Many original editions of Rousseau's works, including Julie and the "Discourse on Inequality" were in Thomas Anson's library. Was Thomas an enthusiast for this revolutionary thinker and extremely difficult, crotchety, man? Rousseau lived for a year at Wootton in the Staffordshire Moorlands in 1766, with an easy ride of Shugborough. It is tempting to think of him visiting the house that commemorated Anson's voyage, which he had used as such a convenient plot device in his novel, and seeing a distant relative of Julie's garden and the flower garden at Nuneham Courtney.

With any garden of the 18th century it is important not to think of buildings as things apart from the overall design. The garden is a carefully harmonised mix of natural features, careful planting and structures which complement the "Reign of Nature", as David Jacques subtitles his excellent book on Georgian Gardens.

Thomas Wright's later work at Stoke Park , which closely followed Shugborough, was more fascinating for its planting than its garden buildings - in fact many years after he first worked there he wrote Lady Beaufort, to recommend that a particular structure should be removed. Wright's later sketches include detailed plans of planting. There is no evidence at all that he had designed planting schemes before Shugborough. Where did he learn such skills? Perhaps over many years staying in some beautiful country estates during his summers he had developed an enthusiasm, and with it a knowledge, of flowers and shrubs and the ways in which they could be composed for appropriate effect.

At Shugborough there must have been very expert gardeners. Thomas Anson's interest in botany is visible in his brief notes in the diary of his 1740-1 voyage. He had the opportunity to bring back plants himself - a cheaper alternative to the endless classical remains or Egyptian mummies his Divan Club acquaintances brought back from their travels. In later years there was a grand greenhouse at Shugborough, and perhaps a completely vanished Thomas Wright predecessor. He sent pineapples to London for Lady Anson and Joseph Banks, the leading botanist of the late 18th century, saw an unusual means of growing peaches on his visit in 1767.

The importance of botany, as well as the seriousness of the interest in Asia , at Shugborough is demonstrated by the catalogue of the library as it was when it was sadly sold in 1842. Books on Chinese, Japanese or oriental culture, and particularly botany, included: (9)

M d'Herbelot Biblioteheque Orientale -1697 -

Chisull Antiquitates Asiaticae - 1727

Père Louis le Compte's Memoirs and Observations made in a late Journey through China - London: Tooke, 1697 / translated from the Paris edition.

( Le Compte was a Jesuit missionary. The volume includes "memoirs and observations, topographical, physical, mathematical, mechanical, natural, civil, and ecclesiastical; made in a late journey through the empire of China and published in several letters, particularly upon the Chinese pottery and varnishing, the silk and other manufactures, the pearl fishing, the history of plants and animals ... the state of Christianity, with many other curious and useful remarks.")

Engelbert Kaempfer's Amoenitates Exoticae 1712 which included two hostas: Joksan, vulgo Giboosi and Giboosi altera.

(Kaempfer's drawings of these species are now in the Sloan Collection of the British Museum . He was the first to mention hostas in Western scientific literature.)

Engelbert Kaempfer's History of Japan 2 v. 1728 (giving an Account of the ancient and present State and Government of that Empire; of Its Temples, Palaces, Castles and other Buildings; of its Metals, Minerals, Trees, Plants, Animals, Birds and Fishes; of The Chronology and Succession of the Emperors, Ecclesiastical and Secular; of The Original Descent, Religions, Customs, and Manufactures of the Natives, and of their Trade and Commerce with the Dutch and Chinese. Together with a Description of the Kingdom of Siam . Written in High-Dutch by Engelbertus Kaempfer, M. D. Physician to the Dutch Embassy to the Emperor's Court; and translated from his Original Manuscript, never before printed, by J. G. Scheuchzer, F. R. S. and a member of the College of Physicians, London. With the Life of the Author, and an Introduction. Illustrated with many copperplates. Vol. I/II. London : Printed for the Translator)

The Chinese Island, and the rest of the Garden, would have featured whatever viable oriental plants were available. It was not simply an exotic scene but a living celebration of the world's variety.

The philosophy and spirituality of the East are also an inseparable part of the scheme - and there are good reasons for thinking of the 1747/8 Shugborough as an integrated concept. The interior design of the house is integrated with the gardens. Thomas Wright had not been involved in any such schemes before, but shortly after Shugborough he designed, on his own, a garden for Badminton in which all the features, buildings and planting, had an elaborate symbolic meaning. It may have used ideas he had picked up at Shugborough. It was never put into practise but the garden had a "Temple of Manly Virtue", a wood planted according to the magic square of Jupiter, and an arbour which would have resembled the inner part, the hypothetical original form, of the Shepherds Monument . The Badminton design is a very formal and obvious example of an overriding concept. The Shugborough project may have been less rigidly structured but it does appear to have a theme or message in its seriously playful eclecticism.

There was a serious interest in the thought of Confucius at the time. Thomas Anson's library contained the 1687 Latin edition of the works of Confucius, "Confucious Sinarum Philosophus". The frontispiece of this book is the source of the portrait of Confucius which appears in a roundel in the plaster ceiling of the Drawing Room. The scheme integrates the ground and the house. There is a subtlety and complexity in the integration of gardening, building, art and ideas which sits unusually well with the overall effect of lightness and wit.

Though Chinoiserie in general was a fashion in the mid 18th century the Chinese House was something of a pioneer building - and the vanished pagoda was certainly a pioneer.

Frederick Prince of Wales was developing his botanical garden at Kew and he built a "House of Confucius" in 1749, a year or so after the Shugborough Chinese House. The Kew House was far more ornate and less authentic. It was designed by Joseph Goupy and the decoration featured illustrations of the life of Confucius. There was also a Chinese House on an island at Wroxton, Oxfordshire, the seat of Lord North. This may have dated from the end of the 1740s and may have been built by Sanderson Miller, who "advised" on the construction of some buildings at Shugborough in 1749 and 1752. From the illustration in David Jacques' "Georgian Gardens " it could be a copy of the Shugborough pavilion.

John Parnell, writing in 1769, described part of the planting around the Chinese House. He uses the words Chinese and Indian interchangeably.

"I must observe that around the Chinese temple there are abundance of fine Larch which are here Justly placed as being Indian trees...from the Chinese House the walk passes by Riverside with an Edge of flowering shrubs and exotic trees to the Left screening the garden wall."(10)

(The walled garden survived near the house until the farm was built at the end of the century. The Doric Temple was originally its entrance.)

GOTHIC PIGEON-HOUSE

There was a gothic Pigeon House behind the Chinese House. It is one of the vanished buildings. It may have been damaged by floods or removed when the river was redirected at the end of the century. The gothic and the Chinese often sit side by side in rococo gardens. Sometimes the two styles merge into a single blend with pointed arches and Chinese ornament. The most effective example of this is the light and airy interior of Shobdon Church, Herefordshire, built in the 1750s. Thomas Wright's Irish designs include a mixture of gothic features and Chinese.

The Pigeon House, at the start at least, failed in its purpose. Lady Anson wrote to Thomas on November 1st 1749 :

"Sorry was I to hear so indifferent account of the Pigeons, whose having so little Taste would almost make one suspect them to be of the same Race with those Birds upon the Tuscan Altar you and I contemplated so long, of which it is doubtful whether they are Doves of Crows…they had so little sense of the many Beauties of their new Palace that you cannot wonder if Lady Grey and I durst not trust ourselves to the conduct of such simple animals…"(11)

BOATHOUSE

The Chinese House (and possibly the Pigeon House) sat on a small island linked to the main garden by a Chinese Bridge . A second bridge led to further woodland a boathouse. This would have had a matching boat for rowing, or sailing, along the river and the canal. The boat would have been an essential part of the garden concept, and the view from a gently moving craft would have been part of the intended effect. The placing of some features may have been decided according to the view from the river. This is most likely the case with the last of the structures built some twenty years later, The Lanthorn of Demosthenes, which is placed on a bank above the River Sow.

It may not be a wild guess that the boat would have been an addition by Thomas's satirist and gardener friend Richard Owen Cambridge. Cambridge had been a member of the Divan Club with Thomas until it folded a few years before. He was one of the writers, with Horace Walpole and George Lyttelton, of "The World", a journal that specialised in the latest ideas of landscaping.

Lady Anson dined at Cambridge's house, Mount Ararat , at Richmond , in April 1750:

"Mr Cambridge will make his Place very pretty; he has a charming view of the River now he has opened it." (11)

His Richmond home, very close to Thomas's friend James Mytton and the antiquarian Daniel Wray, a regular at Wrest Park, was often the out of London base for James Harris, the most important thinker of the Greek Revival. Harris praised Cambridge in his last book, "Philological Enquiries" which goes out of its way to celebrate his friends and also includes the anecdote of Thomas Anson on Tenedos.

Cambridge was a notorious gossip. Lady Anson writes:

"Mr Cambridge has just stepped in with news of new government appointments."

He wrote of himself:

"My body light, my figure slim,
My mind dispos'd to mirth and whim."(12)

Boats were Cambridge's particular hobby and he eagerly discussed ideas with Lord Anson. He built a thirty seat pleasure boat in Venetian style, a twelve oared barge, and a successful boat with a "flying prow" based on descriptions from Anson's voyage. He specialised, at his seat at Whitminster on the Severn , in "promenades en bateau" where he once entertained Frederick , Prince of Wales on the river.(13) With his connections to Thomas through the Divan Club (his father had been a "Turkey Merchant"), through Lord Anson, and through James Harris, Cambridge remained a friend over thirty years. He was one of those on the list of friends and political neighbours who received a mourning ring at Thomas's death. He was also one of the subscribers to Thomas Wright's beautifully produced but financially unsuccessful "Universal Architecture" (only the first two books, Arbours and Grottoes appeared) in 1755.

Lady Anson enjoyed a "navigation" on the river on her last visit to Shugborough in 1759. She wrote to Lord Anson:

"We had the finest navigation these two days upon the River that is possible. Every new point one sees this place from it appears in a new light of beauty; and I should be very sorry to leave…" (14)

THE RUINS

Sneyd Davies, quoted above, mentions "a pile of broken arches, and of imperfect pillars, to counterfeit the remains of antiquity" in 1750. "A tour through the whole Island of Great Britain" published in 1748 also mentions the ruins, and the Essex Bridge that links Shugborough to Great Haywood. This guide must have been extremely up to date when it was published unless the ruins had been built before the rest of the landscaping. They seem, though, to have been very much part of the overall scheme.

These monuments, and the new Drawing Room and Library, were probably all in place when Lady Grey visited in 1748. Other features were certainly added after that date.

THE CAT'S MONUMENT

Lady Anson, in Bath on 16th August 1749, wrote to Thomas to suggest a stone quarry which could make the Cat's Monument. The idea had obviously already been discussed. The eccentric nature of this structure could be accounted to Wright, in which case it is likely that he had supplied a drawing. She calls it "Kouli-Kan's Monument" (15).

The most likely source of the name, usually spelled as Lady Anson spells it, is the 18th century Persian Emperor Kouli-Kan - the European name for Nadir Shah, emperor of Persia and conqueror of India who died in 1747. It seems most likely that the eccentric looking cat was one of Thomas's Persians and named after the Emperor. Was this before or after the emperor had burned one of the Shariamans family at the stake?

Descendants of Kouli-Khan were still there nearly twenty years later.

The botanist Joseph Banks visited Shugborough in 1767 and mentioned that he saw two animals new to him, Persian Cats and Corsican goats.

Thomas Anson told Banks that his cats had died of distemper apart from one last survivor, which was pure white. Perhaps all the cars had been descended from Kouli Khan who had, presumably, died twenty years before.

The Cats Monument was altered later. Coad Stone panels are almost certainly designed by Stuart as they resemble work he did for Wentworth Woodhouse very early in his career - useful evidence for the dates of Stuart's involvement at Shugborough. The Corsican goats, (which John Dick supplied to Anson in 1760) are also represented on the monument. These creatures seem to have been "Muffoli". James Boswell mentions them in his "Account of Corsica". He probably heard of them from Banks as he did not meet Anson until 1772.

"…there are now two of them at Shugborough in Staffordshire, the seat of Mr. Anson, who has a rich assemblage of what is curious in nature, as well as of what is elegant in art."(16)

There were other curious creatures. In 1769 John Parnell described:

"...a Bird from the India's calld a crown Bird which makes a Beautiful Appearance in shape like a Heron with a tuft of feathers on the Head like spun (?) glass so fine very tall and oddly shaped - has lived there ten years."(17)

Joseph Banks saw this bird two years earlier:

"From thence we went into the Kitchen garden where we saw the Pavonina or Crown Bird who had lived here for some time upon sea Biscuit and what he could pick up which the Gardener said was a good deal especially when dung was brought into the garden."(18)

THE PAGODA AND PALLADIAN BRIDGE

Lady Anson also mentions the long vanished wooden pagoda under construction in November 1752. This was the first pagoda in England, predating the pagoda at Kew by ten years. The architect Sanderson Miller mentions in his diary that he "advised" at Shugborough in1752 and this may well have been advice on a practical realisation of a Wright sketch. The Palladian Bridge and cascades were part of an elaborate water scheme that has completely vanished, and were typical of Wright's style.

Parnell writes of a

"fine Peice of water falling from a still finer and realy noble Peice of water above it at one End is a Pagoda very Pretty at the other a Palladian Bridge from the arch of which falls the water."(19)

OBELISK

Also built around this time was a wooden obelisk on the hill, perhaps not far from the junction of the farm drive and the Lichfield Road. This blew down in the nineteenth century. It is visible in Dall's pictures of the landscape but impossible to date.

There may have been other features that have been lost. It is possible that the caves at Haywood Cliffs, probably produced by quarrying, were originally part of the landscape, as a hermitage. They have acted this role recently as the home for a modern day hermit as an art project. There is a curious horned face carved in the sandstone that resembles those on the Shepherd's Monument - but that raises the several questions of that most puzzling of all the features - When was it built? Who designed it? What does it mean?

1) John Nichols:Illustrations of the Literary History of the Eighteenth Century, Nichols, Son and Bentley, 1817 (Google Books)

2) Transcription of John Parnell's journal, original in the London School of Economics, in the William Salt Library, Stafford

3) Bedfordshire Record Office. Grey Papers. Quoted in - John Martin Robinson: Shugborough (The National Trust, 1989)

4) Transcription of John Parnell's journal, original in the London School of Economics, in the William Salt Library, Stafford

5) Thomas Pennant: The Journey from Chester to London (Wilkie and Robinson, 1811) Available on Google Books

6) Staffordshire Record Office. Anson Papers. D615 P (S)/1/3

7) Staffordshire Record Office. Anson Papers. D615 P (S)/1/3

8) David Jacques: Georgian Gardens, the Reign of Nature (Batsford, 1983)

9) From a copy of the 1842 Shugborough Sale Catalogue in the William Salt Library, Stafford

10) Transcription of extracts from John Parnell's Journal in the William Salt Library, Stafford

11) Staffordshire Records Office. Anson Papers. D615/P/S/1/1/17B

12) http://www.twickenham-museum.org.uk/detail.asp?ContentID=59

13) Austin Dobson: Cambridge the everything - quoted on:

http://198.82.142.160/spenser/BiographyRecord.php?action=GET&bioid=34067

14) Staffordshire Record Office D615 P (S) 1/2/28

15) Staffordshire Records Office D615/P(S)/1/310A

16) James Boswell: An account of Corsica (Edward and Charles Dilly, 1768) Available on Google Books.

17) Transcription of extracts from John Parnell's Journal in the William Salt Library, Stafford

18) Extract from Joseph Banks Travel Journal

19) Parnell op. cit